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The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking , i. Though the expense involved in making films almost immediately led film production to concentrate under the auspices of standing production companies, advances in affordable filmmaking equipment, as well as an expansion of opportunities to acquire investment capital from outside the film industry itself, have allowed independent film production to evolve.

However, in , China became the largest box office territory, overtaking North America in gross total. The cinema of the United States , often generally referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. The United States cinema Hollywood is the oldest film industry in the world and also the largest film industry in terms of revenue.

Hollywood is the primary nexus of the U. The major film studios of Hollywood including Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer , 20th Century Fox , and Paramount Pictures are the primary source of the most commercially successful movies in the world , [10] [11] such as The Sound of Music , Star Wars , Titanic , and Avatar American film studios today collectively generate several hundred films every year, making the United States one of the most prolific producers of films in the world.

Most shooting now [ when? The California weather allowed for year-round filming. France is the birthplace of cinema and was responsible for many of its significant contributions to the art form and the film-making process itself. It is noted for having a particularly strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the French government. French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations.

Another element supporting this fact is that Paris has the highest density of cinemas in the world, measured by the number of movie theaters per inhabitant, [16] and that in most „downtown Paris“ movie theaters, foreign movies which would be secluded to „art houses“ cinemas in other places are shown alongside „mainstream“ works.

In , France saw a record-breaking feature-length films produced. The cinema of China is one of three distinct historical threads of Chinese-language cinema together with the cinema of Hong Kong and the cinema of Taiwan.

Cinema was introduced in China in and the first Chinese film, Dingjun Mountain , was made in , with the film industry being centered on Shanghai in the first decades. China is the home of the largest film studio in the world, the Hengdian World Studios , and in it had the third largest film industry by number of feature films produced annually. For the next decade the production companies were mainly foreign-owned, and the domestic film industry was centered on Shanghai, a thriving entrepot and the largest city in the Far East.

As the Sixth Generation [ clarification needed ] gained international exposure, many subsequent films were joint ventures and projects with international backers, but remained quite resolutely low-key and low budget [ citation needed ].

It featured no star of international renown and was acted mostly by non-professionals. In the country became the second-largest market in the world by box office receipts. India is the largest producer of films in the world and second oldest film industry in the world.

In India produced a total of 2, films on celluloid; this figure includes 1, feature films. The largest film and most popular industry in India is the Hindi film industry , followed by Telugu cinema and Tamil cinema.

The Hindi film industry mostly concentrated in Mumbai Bombay , and is commonly referred to as Bollywood , a portmanteau of Bombay and Hollywood. Sandalwood industry is Kannada cinema concentrated in Bengaluru. The Mollywood industry concentrated in the state of Kerala refers to the Malayalam cinema.

Tollywood Telugu cinema and Kollywood Tamil cinema are concentrated in Hyderabad and Chennai respectively. By , Telugu cinema Tollywood has overtaken Hindi cinema Bollywood and emerged as the largest film industry in India in terms of box-office. Besides the mainstream commercial movies, India also offers a different approach to cinema- the parallel cinema.

The parallel cinema movement originated in West Bengal around the s. Parallel cinema is a blanket term designated to a certain type of films that stray away from the conventions of popular mainstream cinema.

Parallel cinema has assumed various forms throughout the years. Parallel films are characterized by their rejection of popular forms like the songs and fight sequences, their affinity for rural settings, use of method actors and toned down colour palettes. Some examples of such movies are Raincoat , Dhobi Ghat , Mithya. The other largest film industries are Malayalam cinema , Bangla cinema cinema of West Bengal and Marathi cinema , which are located in Kochi , Kolkata and Mumbai respectively.

The remaining majority portion is spread across northern, western, eastern and southern India with Gujarati , Punjabi , Odia , Bhojpuri , Assamese Cinema. However, there are several smaller centres of Indian film industries in regional languages centred in the states where those languages are spoken. Indian cinema encloses a number of several artforms like Indian classical music, folk music of different regions throughout the country, Indian classical dance, folk dance and much more.

Bollywood, Kollywood and Tollywood is the largest portion of the Indian film industry and is viewed all over the Indian Subcontinent , and is increasingly [ when? Comprising 47 sound stages, it has permanent sets ranging from railway stations to temples. By , India’s annual film output had increased from films produced annually to films annually, making India the world’s largest film producer.

The United Kingdom has had a significant film industry for over a century. While film production reached an all-time high in , [43] the „golden age“ of British cinema is usually thought to have occurred in the s, during which the directors David Lean , [44] Michael Powell , with Emeric Pressburger [45] and Carol Reed [46] produced their most highly acclaimed work.

The first moving picture was shot in Leeds by Louis Le Prince in [51] [52] and the first moving pictures developed on celluloid film were made in Hyde Park, London in by British inventor William Friese Greene , [53] who patented the process in Two of the top eight highest-grossing films worldwide of all time [ when? Adding four more Harry Potter films and one more Lord of the Rings movie, plus the Tim Burton version of Alice in Wonderland , and more than half of the top twenty most financially successful [ when?

The studio continued to draw on British source material for its animated films after Walt Disney ’s death in , with the cartoon feature films Robin Hood , The Rescuers and The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh , one of many Disney to draw on A. Milne ’s characters. In the s and s, British studios established a reputation [ citation needed ] for great special effects in films such as Superman , Alien , and Batman Some of this reputation was founded on the core of talent brought together for the filming of A Space Odyssey who subsequently worked together on series and feature films for Gerry Anderson.

The Bristol-based Aardman Animations is known for its stop-motion animation. In late , Channel 4 launched their free-to-air film channel Film4 — a channel specifically designed to show films. The London-based visual effects company Framestore , with Tim Webber the visual effects supervisor , have worked on the films The Dark Knight and Gravity , with new techniques involved in Gravity taking three years to complete. The history of Cinema of Poland is almost as long as the history of cinematography , and it has universally recognized achievements, even though Polish films tend to be less commercially available than films from several other European nations.

After World War II , the communist government built an auteur -based national cinema, trained hundreds of new directors and empowered them to make films. In more recent years, the industry has been producer-led with finance being the key to a film being made, and with many independent filmmakers of all genres, Polish productions tend to be more inspired by American film. The Polish Film School was under heavy influence of Italian neorealists.

Among the most important topics were the generation of former Home Army soldiers and their role in post-war Poland and the national tragedies like the German concentration camps and the Warsaw Uprising.

The political changes allowed the group to speak more openly of the recent history of Poland. However, the rule of censorship was still strong when it comes to history after and there were very few films on the contemporary events. This marked the major difference between the members of the Polish Film School and Italian neorealists. The Polish Film School was the first to underline the national character of Poles and one of the first artistic movements in Central Europe to openly oppose the official guidelines of Socialist realism.

The members of the movement tend to underline the role of individual as opposed to collectivity. There were two trends within the movement: young directors such as Andrzej Wajda generally studied the idea of heroism, while another group the most notable being Andrzej Munk analysed the Polish character via irony, humor and a dissection of national myths.

The cinema of Nigeria , often referred to informally as Nollywood is the cinema of Nigeria. The Nigerian Film Industry is the largest movie industry globally in terms of output, and is the third largest, in terms of overall revenues generated. The history and development of the Nigerian motion picture industry is sometimes generally classified in four main eras: the Colonial era , Golden Age , Video film era and the emerging New Nigerian cinema. Film as a medium first arrived in Nigeria in the late 19th century, in the form of peephole viewing of motion picture devices.

The first film entirely copyrighted to the Nigerian Film unit is Fincho by Sam Zebba; which is also the first Nigerian film to be shot in colour. After Nigeria’s independence in , the cinema business rapidly expanded, with new cinema houses being established. The s, s and the s are generally considered the golden age of Egyptian cinema.

As in the West, films responded to the popular imagination, with most falling into predictable genres happy endings being the norm , and many actors making careers out of playing strongly typed parts.

In the words of one critic, „If an Egyptian film intended for popular audiences lacked any of these prerequisites, it constituted a betrayal of the unwritten contract with the spectator, the results of which would manifest themselves in the box office. Smaller art films attract some international attention but sparse attendance at home.

Popular films, often broad comedies such as What A Lie! Iranian art films have garnered international fame and now enjoy a global following. Along with China, Iran has been lauded as one of the best exporters of cinema in the s, according to Jamsheed Akrami.

Japan has one of the oldest and largest film industries in the world; as of , it was the fourth largest by number of feature films produced. The term cinema of Korea or Korean cinema encompasses the motion picture industries of North and South Korea. As with all aspects of Korean life during the past century, the film industry has often been at the mercy of political events, from the late Joseon dynasty to the Korean War to domestic governmental interference. While both countries have relatively robust film industries today [ when?

North Korean films tend to portray their communist or revolutionary themes. South Korean films enjoyed a „Golden age“ during the late s, and s. By South Korea had become one of few nations to watch more domestic than imported films in theaters [80] due largely to laws placing limits on the number of foreign films able to be shown per theater per year. Hong Kong is a filmmaking hub for the Chinese-speaking world including the worldwide diaspora and East Asia in general.

For decades it was the third largest motion picture industry in the world after Bollywood and Hollywood and the second largest exporter of films. Unlike many film industries, Hong Kong has enjoyed little to no direct government support, through either subsidies or import quotas. It has always been a thoroughly commercial cinema, concentrating on crowd-pleasing genres , like comedy and action, and heavily reliant on formulas, sequels and remakes. Typically of commercial cinemas, its heart is a highly developed star system , which in this case also features substantial overlap with the pop music industry.

The Turkish film market stands out in the pan-European landscape as the only market where national films regularly outperform US films. This was the third lowest share among the 30 European markets for which such data are available and clearly illustrates the strong dependence of Turkish films on the domestic market, a feature which is shared by Polish and Russian films. In a cinema ticket cost on average EUR 4. Most of the feature films shot in Pakistan are in Urdu , the national language, but may also include films in English, the official language, and regional languages such as Punjabi , Pashto , Balochi , and Sindhi.

Lahore has been described as the epicentre of Pakistani cinema, giving rise to the term “ Lollywood „as portmanteau of Lahore and Hollywood. Before the separation of Bangladesh, Pakistan had three main film production centres: Lahore , Karachi and Dhaka. The regime of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq , VCRs , film piracy , the introduction of entertainment taxes, strict laws based upon ultra-conservative jurisprudence, was an obstacle to the industry’s growth.

Lahore is the second big film producer now mostly Urdu and Punjabi movies followed by Peshawar where mostly Pashto films are produced.



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